A Faa’idah Related to Aayah Ninety ‘Surah An-Nahl’ -[By Sh Saaleh Aala Ash-Shaikh (hafifhahullaah)]

Verily, Allah enjoins Al-Adl (i.e. justice and worshipping none but Allah Alone – Islamic Monotheism) and Al-Ihsan [i.e. to be patient in performing your duties to Allah, totally for Allah’s sake and in accordance with the Sunnah (legal ways) of the Prophet in a perfect manner], and giving (help) to kith and kin (i.e. all that Allah has ordered you to give them e.g., wealth, visiting, looking after them, or any other kind of help, etc.): and forbids Al-Fahsha’ (i.e all evil deeds, e.g. illegal sexual acts, disobedience of parents, polytheism, to tell lies, to give false witness, to kill a life without right, etc.), and Al-Munkar (i.e all that is prohibited by Islamic law: polytheism of every kind, disbelief and every kind of evil deeds, etc.), and Al-Baghy (i.e. all kinds of oppression), He admonishes you, that you may take heed.


When The Prophet Asked Ubay, ” Which Aayah In The Qur’aan Is The Greatest?” The Response He Gave Shows Us The Lofty Station of Tawheed In The Hearts of The Sahaabah – [By Shaikh Abdur Razzaaq Al-Badr (Hafidhahullaah)]

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy

The Messenger of Allah said to Abay, “O Abu Mundhir! Do you know which verse from the Book of Allah – [you have memorised] – is the greatest?” He [Ubay] said, “Allaah and His Messenger know best.” The Prophet [repeated and] said, “O Abu Mundhir [Ubay]! Do you know which verse from the Book of Allaah – [you have memorised] – is the greatest?”. He [Ubay] said, “Allāhu laa ilāha illa huwal-Hayyul-Qayyoom [Aayatul-Kursi]. He [Ubay] said, “He [The Prophet] then struck me on my chest and said “By Allah, may you be blessed in your knowledge O Aba Mundhir.” [Muslim, hadith no.810]

Firstly: Ponder upon the question Ubay [radiyallaahu anhu] was asked!

He [radiyallaahu anhu] was a haafidh of the Qur’aan and was called the leader of the reciters. The Aayaat of the Qur’aan exceed six thousand in number, so when the Prophet asked him which Aayaah of the Qur’aan is the greatest, he extracted it from that [huge] number. He did not extract it from ten, a hundred or two hundred Aayaat, rather he extracted it from over six thousand Aayaat.

Secondly: Ponder upon the fact also that Ubay answered the question immediately. It did not take him a week, two weeks, a month or two, rather he answered immediately. When the Prophet [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] asked him at first, he said, “Allaah and his Messenger know best.” But when the Prophet [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] repeated the question, he knew that the Prophet [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] permitted him to strive and find the answer, so he replied.

Thirdly: Also ponder upon how fast Ubay [radiyallaahu anhu] answered, which shows us the great station of Tawheed in the hearts of the Sahaabah and that Tawheed is the greatest subject matter in the Qur’aan. That is because when Ubay [radiyallaahu anhu] was asked he did not quote an Aayah regarding rulings on other matters nor an Aayaah regarding the story of the nations of the past, nor an Aayah regarding the events on the Day of Judgement, nor Aayaat regarding manners, rather the first thing that came to his mind was Tawheed.

http://al-badr.net/sub/29


 

Our Lord Forbade Us from Pleading On Behalf of Those Known for Treachery In Religious Or Worldly Affairs

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy

Allaah [The Most High] said:

إِنَّآ أَنزَلۡنَآ إِلَيۡكَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ بِٱلۡحَقِّ لِتَحۡكُمَ بَيۡنَ ٱلنَّاسِ بِمَآ أَرَٮٰكَ ٱللَّهُ‌ۚ وَلَا تَكُن لِّلۡخَآٮِٕنِينَ خَصِيمً۬ا

Surely, We have sent down to you [O Muhammad] the Book in truth that you might judge between people by that which Allah has shown you, so be not a pleader for the treacherous. [Soorah An-Nisaa Aayah 105]

Meaning: Do not argue for the one whose treachery is known, such as the one who pursues what does not belong to him or rejects a right he must fulfil, whether he is aware of it or not.  In this is proof to [establish] that it is forbidden to argue based on falsehood and to plead [on behalf] of one who makes a false claim –in religious or worldly disputes. On the other hand, it is permissible to plead on behalf of someone -in a dispute- who is not known for treachery [or deception].


[Source: Tayseer al-Kareem ar-Rahmaan Fee Tafseer Kalaam al-Mannaan. abridged & paraphrased]

 

Prophet Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] Gave a Great Advice to His People And They Responded With a Great Supplication

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy

 

Allaah (The Most High) said:

وَقَالَ مُوسَىٰ يَـٰقَوۡمِ إِن كُنتُمۡ ءَامَنتُم بِٱللَّهِ فَعَلَيۡهِ تَوَكَّلُوٓاْ إِن كُنتُم مُّسۡلِمِينَ

قَالُواْ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ تَوَكَّلۡنَا رَبَّنَا لَا تَجۡعَلۡنَا فِتۡنَةً۬ لِّلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ

وَنَجِّنَا بِرَحۡمَتِكَ مِنَ ٱلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلۡكَـٰفِرِينَ

And Musa (Moses) said: “O my people! If you have believed in Allah, then put your trust in Him if you are Muslims (those who submit to Allah’s Will).” They said: “In Allah we put our trust. Our Lord! Make us not a trial for the folk who are Zalimun [ Wrong-doers] (i.e. do not make them overpower us). And save us by Your Mercy from the disbelieving folk.” [10:84-86]

Brief Reminder from the above Aayaat

They asked their Lord not to put them to trial-neither by way of being placed under the authority of a people who would then put them to trial, nor to be defeated and then they fall into trial, saying: Had we been upon the truth we would not have been defeated.


[Source: (Tayseer Al-Kareem Ar-Rahmaan Fee Tafseer kalaam al-Mannaan). Abridged and paraphrased]

The Big Difference Between Those Whose Charity is Accompanied By Boasting, Insult, Arrogance, Harm and Blackmail, and Those Who Give For The Sake of Allaah

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy

Allaah [The Most High] said:

 مَّثَلُ ٱلَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمۡوَٲلَهُمۡ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ كَمَثَلِ حَبَّةٍ أَنۢبَتَتۡ سَبۡعَ سَنَابِلَ فِى كُلِّ سُنۢبُلَةٍ۬ مِّاْئَةُ حَبَّةٍ۬‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ يُضَـٰعِفُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ وَٲسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ (٢٦١)ٱلَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمۡوَٲلَهُمۡ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ ثُمَّ لَا يُتۡبِعُونَ مَآ أَنفَقُواْ مَنًّ۬ا وَلَآ أَذً۬ى‌ۙ لَّهُمۡ أَجۡرُهُمۡ عِندَ رَبِّهِمۡ وَلَا خَوۡفٌ عَلَيۡهِمۡ وَلَا هُمۡ يَحۡزَنُونَ (٢٦٢)۞ قَوۡلٌ۬ مَّعۡرُوفٌ۬ وَمَغۡفِرَةٌ خَيۡرٌ۬ مِّن صَدَقَةٍ۬ يَتۡبَعُهَآ أَذً۬ى‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ غَنِىٌّ حَلِيمٌ۬ (٢٦٣) يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تُبۡطِلُواْ صَدَقَـٰتِكُم بِٱلۡمَنِّ وَٱلۡأَذَىٰ كَٱلَّذِى يُنفِقُ مَالَهُ ۥ رِئَآءَ ٱلنَّاسِ وَلَا يُؤۡمِنُ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأَخِرِ‌ۖ فَمَثَلُهُ ۥ كَمَثَلِ صَفۡوَانٍ عَلَيۡهِ تُرَابٌ۬ فَأَصَابَهُ ۥ وَابِلٌ۬ فَتَرَڪَهُ ۥ صَلۡدً۬ا‌ۖ لَّا يَقۡدِرُونَ عَلَىٰ شَىۡءٍ۬ مِّمَّا ڪَسَبُواْ‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يَهۡدِى ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلۡكَـٰفِرِينَ (٢٦٤) وَمَثَلُ ٱلَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمۡوَٲلَهُمُ ٱبۡتِغَآءَ مَرۡضَاتِ ٱللَّهِ وَتَثۡبِيتً۬ا مِّنۡ أَنفُسِهِمۡ كَمَثَلِ جَنَّةِۭ بِرَبۡوَةٍ أَصَابَهَا وَابِلٌ۬ فَـَٔاتَتۡ أُڪُلَهَا ضِعۡفَيۡنِ فَإِن لَّمۡ يُصِبۡہَا وَابِلٌ۬ فَطَلٌّ۬‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ 

 


Surah Al-Baqarah’ Aayaat 261-265

O You Who Believe! Fear Allaah and Be With Those Who Are Truthful – [A Brief Admonition By Imaam Ibnul Qayyim]

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy

Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [rahimahullaah] said:

Allaah [The Most High] punishes the liar by preventing and holding him back from the things that brings about wellbeing and benefit for him; and Allaah rewards the truthful person by granting him the ability to obtain the affairs of wellbeing in his worldly life and afterlife. There is nothing similar to truthfulness by way of which the affairs of well- being of this world and the afterlife are obtained. And there is nothing similar to lies by way of which both of them (i.e. the affairs of wellbeing in this life and the next) are corrupted.

Allaah (The Most High) said:

[يا أيها الذين آمنوا اتقوا الله وكونوا مع الصادقين –O you who believe! Fear Allaah and be with those who are truthful]


 

An Important Moral Conduct During Adversity – [Returning to The People of Sound Judgement, Experience And Insight – (The Senior Scholars of The Sunnah)]

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy

Allaah (The Most High) said:

وَإِذَا جَاءَهُمْ أَمْرٌ مِّنَ الْأَمْنِ أَوِ الْخَوْفِ أَذَاعُوا بِهِ ۖ وَلَوْ رَدُّوهُ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ وَإِلَىٰ أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْهُمْ لَعَلِمَهُ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَنبِطُونَهُ مِنْهُمْ ۗ وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ لَاتَّبَعْتُمُ الشَّيْطَانَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

When there comes to them some matter touching (public) safety or fear, they make it known (among the people), if only they had referred it to the Messenger or to those charged with authority among them, the proper investigators would have understood it from them (directly). Had it not been for the Grace and Mercy of Allaah upon you, you would have followed Shaitaan (Satan), save a few of you.'[4:83]

Imaam Ibn Katheer (rahimahullaah) said: ”In this ayah (there) is a rebuke against the one who rushes towards affairs and then gives news about it before verifying it – circulates and spreads it -and perhaps there is no credibility in it.”

Therefore, this ayah obligates verification and clarification when (news) is heard, as Ibn katheer (rahimahullaah) mentioned. It rebukes the one who hastens in transmitting and spreading (news) before verifying its credibility.

This ayah (also) guides to another affair and that is (important news touching public safety and fear) is to be relayed to those in authority from amongst the Scholars and the Rulers and not to the common people, for there is no benefit in transmitting it to the common people; rather what is of benefit is that it is transmitted to the people in authority because they are those with a sound understanding of the affairs and the benefits that are extracted from them. They are the ones with the ability to avert the harmful affairs.

Ibn Katheer then mentioned a number of narrations about being careful about hastiness and lack of verifying news- and from them is a narration by Abu Hurairah (radiyallaahu-anhu) that the Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) said: ‘’It is enough for a man to prove himself a liar when he goes on narrating whatever he hears’’.

And Mugheerah bin Shubah (radiyallaahu-anhu) said, ‘’The Messenger of Allaah (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) forbade Qeel Wal Qaal (i.e. so and so said)’’.  Ibn Katheer (rahimahullaah) said, ‘’It is the one who narrates a great deal of that which the people say without verification, contemplation and clarification’’.

Then Ibn Katheer (rahimahullaah) stated:

The hadith of Umar (radiyallaahu-anhu) collected by Bukhaari and Muslim should be mentioned here; when Umar was told that the Messenger of Allaah (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) divorced his wives, he left his house and entered the mosque, where he found the people talking about it; so he could not endure waiting and ask for the permission of the Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) to speak to him; then Umar asked the Prophet, saying, ‘‘Have you divorced your women?’’ The Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) said, ‘No’.  So Umar said, I said ‘Allaahu Akbar……’

And in the narration collected by Imaam Muslim, Umar said, I asked, ‘Have you divorced them?’ The Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) said, ‘No’.  So I stood by the door of the mosque and shouted with a loud voice, saying, ‘The Messenger of Allaah did not divorce his wives’.  Then the ayah (i.e. Ayah 83, Surah Nisaa) was revealed.  Umar said, ‘I investigated this affair properly’ (i.e. whether the Prophet did divorce his wives).

Imaam As-Sadi [rahimahullaah] said about this Aayaah [i.e. An-Nisaa 83]: This is a moral conduct [commanded by Allaah] to His slaves – that they do not do this [i.e. hasten to spread news]. And it is obligated on them that when there comes to them an affair from the important affairs – matters related to a universal benefit for the people, public safety and those affairs on which depends the sorrow or happiness of the believers, or an affair of public fear which may bring about calamity upon them- that they should verify the [news of that affair] and not to be hasty in spreading it; rather they should refer it back to the Messenger [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] and to those in authority- the people of sound opinions, the people of knowledge; those who can give sound advice, the people of intelligence and those who approach affairs with calmness, and they are those who know what is of overriding benefit and that which is in opposition to it [i.e. the scholars].  So, if they see that disseminating such news will bring about an overriding benefit for the Muslims, strengthen them, bring about happiness and make them vigilant over their enemies, then they would disseminate such news; but if they see that there is no overriding benefit in disseminating such news, or that there is benefit in it, but there is more harm in doing so; then they would not circulate such news.  That is why Allaah stated:

وَلَوْ رَدُّوهُ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ وَإِلَىٰ أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْهُمْ لَعَلِمَهُ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَنبِطُونَهُ مِنْهُمْ

‘’If only they had referred it to the Messenger or to those charged with authority among them, the proper investigators would have understood it from them (directly)’’- Meaning: They would have derived from it [the proper cause of action] through contemplation and through their correct opinions and rightly guided sciences.

Therefore, in this there is proof regarding a principle related to a moral conduct, that when an [important affair] from the [important affairs] suddenly appears, it is obligatory to refer it to those who are competent in the affair and one should not put himself forward before them, for that is closer to correctness and [safer] in preventing mistakes. And in this, there is a prohibition against being hasty in circulating news [that is related important affairs of public safety or fear] and a command to contemplate before speaking- to look into the affair, as to whether it is an affair of overriding benefit to be dealt with, or whether it should be avoided if it does not carry an [overriding benefit].

[وَلَوۡلَا فَضۡلُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡڪُمۡ وَرَحۡمَتُهُ – Had it not been for the Grace and Mercy of Allah upon you]- Meaning: by way granting you the ability to act upon righteousness, instructed you with moral conducts and taught you that which you never knew, then [لَٱتَّبَعۡتُمُ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنَ إِلَّا قَلِيلاً۬  – you would have followed Shaitan (Satan), save a few of you].


Source: Al-Fitnah Wa Mawqiful Muslim Minhaa’ 78-83 by Shaikh Muhammad Aqeel [may Allaah preserve him]

Abridged and slightly paraphrased

Reflection: The Evil End of Those Ancients Who Became Haughty In The Earth and Utilised the Blessings of Allaah In Sin, Transgression, Oppression, Falsehood etc

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy

Allaah [The Most High] said:

أَلَمۡ تَرَ كَيۡفَ فَعَلَ رَبُّكَ بِعَادٍ

إِرَمَ ذَاتِ ٱلۡعِمَادِ

ٱلَّتِى لَمۡ يُخۡلَقۡ مِثۡلُهَا فِى ٱلۡبِلَـٰدِ

Did you (O Muhammad) not see (thought) how your Lord dealt with ‘Ad (people)? Who were very tall like lofty pillars, the like of which were not created in the land?

وَثَمُودَ ٱلَّذِينَ جَابُواْ ٱلصَّخۡرَ بِٱلۡوَادِ

And (with) Thamud (people), who cut (hewed) out rocks in the valley (to make dwellings)?

وَفِرۡعَوۡنَ ذِى ٱلۡأَوۡتَادِ

And (with) Fir’aun (Pharaoh), who had [armies to firmly establish his kingdom[Ref 1]?

ٱلَّذِينَ طَغَوۡاْ فِى ٱلۡبِلَـٰدِ

فَأَكۡثَرُواْ فِيہَا ٱلۡفَسَادَ

Who did transgress beyond bounds in the lands. And made therein much mischief. Meaning- Aad, Thamud and Fir’awn committed acts of disobedience to Allaah and were haughty towards Allaah’s Prophets, and committed corruption by way of killing. [Ref 2]

فَصَبَّ عَلَيۡهِمۡ رَبُّكَ سَوۡطَ عَذَابٍ

إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَبِٱلۡمِرۡصَادِ

So, your Lord poured on them different kinds of severe torment. Verily, your Lord is Ever Watchful (over them).


 

What Was the End of That Haughty Tyrant, Wicked Criminal, Blame Shifter, Compulsive Liar, Transgressor and Oppressor Who Played the Victim Card for Many Years and Deceived Many People?

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy

Allaah  [The Most High] said: [وَقَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ – Fir’aun (Pharaoh) said] with haughtiness and tyranny, whilst deluding his foolish people; [ذَرُونِي أَقْتُلْ مُوسَىٰ وَلْيَدْعُ رَبَّهُ  – Leave me to kill Musa (Moses), and let him call his Lord (to stop me from killing him)!] [Soorah Ghafir: Ayah 26]

This was his [false] claim- that had it not been the consideration he gives to the wishes of his people, he would have killed Musa and Musa’s supplication to his Lord [i.e. Allaah] would not have stopped him from that. Then he [Fir’aun] mentioned why he wanted to kill Musa – that he is a sincere adviser to his people and desires to remove mischief from the land. Allaah [The Most High] stated that Fir’awn said:

[إِنِّي أَخَافُ أَنْ يُبَدِّلَ دِينَكُمْ أَوْ أَنْ يُظْهِرَ فِي الْأَرْضِ الْفَسَادَ – I fear that he (Musa) may change your religion, or that he may cause mischief to appear in the land!” [Soorah Ghaafir: Ayah 26]

This is the most amazing the affair can be! The most evil one among the creation gives advice to the people against the best among the creation. This is [nothing else] but disguised falsehood and propaganda, which cannot seize except the intellects of those [people] about whom Allaah stated:

[فَاسْتَخَفَّ قَوْمَهُ فَأَطَاعُوهُ ۚ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا قَوْمًا فَاسِقِينَ – Thus he Fir’aun (Pharaoh)] befooled and misled his people, and they obeyed him. Verily, they were ever a people who were Fasiqun (rebellious, disobedient to Allah).] [Soorah Az-Zukhruf: Ayah 54] [Re 1]

 

What was the end of Fir’aun and his evil blind followers

Allaah [The Most High] said:

كَمۡ تَرَكُواْ مِن جَنَّـٰتٍ۬ وَعُيُونٍ۬

How many of gardens and springs do they [Fir’aun’s (Pharaoh) people] left.

وَزُرُوعٍ۬ وَمَقَامٍ۬ كَرِيمٍ۬

And green crops (fields etc.) and goodly places,

وَنَعۡمَةٍ۬ كَانُواْ فِيہَا فَـٰكِهِينَ

And comforts of life wherein they used to take delight!

كَذَٲلِكَ‌ۖ وَأَوۡرَثۡنَـٰهَا قَوۡمًا ءَاخَرِينَ

Thus (it was)! And We made other people inherit them (i.e. We made the Children of Israel to inherit the kingdom of Egypt).

فَمَا بَكَتۡ عَلَيۡہِمُ ٱلسَّمَآءُ وَٱلۡأَرۡضُ وَمَا كَانُواْ مُنظَرِينَ

And the heavens and the earth wept not for them , nor were they given a respite.

وَلَقَدۡ نَجَّيۡنَا بَنِىٓ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ مِنَ ٱلۡعَذَابِ ٱلۡمُهِينِ

And indeed We saved the Children of Israel from the humiliating torment,

مِن فِرۡعَوۡنَ‌ۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ كَانَ عَالِيً۬ا مِّنَ ٱلۡمُسۡرِفِينَ

From Fir’aun (Pharaoh); Verily! He was arrogant and was of the Musrifun (those who transgress beyond bound in spending and other things and commit great sins).

[Surah Ad-Dukhaan’ Aayaat 25-31]


Ref 1: Source: Excerpt From ‘Tayseer Al-Kareem Ar-Rahmaan Fee Tafseer Kalaam Al-Mannaan of Imaam’.  Abridged and slightly paraphrased

 

Who Is the Most Disobedient Person and The Worst with Regards to Giving Precedence to Himself [or Herself] Over the Messenger?

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy

Allaah [The Most High] also said in Surah Al-Hujuraat Aayaat 1 & 2:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيِ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَرْفَعُوا أَصْوَاتَكُمْ فَوْقَ صَوْتِ النَّبِيِّ

O you who believe! Do not put (yourselves) forward before Allah and His Messenger, and fear Allah. Verily! Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing. O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet.

Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [rahimahullaah] said:

When it is the case that Allaah forbade [us] from giving precedence to [ourselves] over the Messenger, then which type of giving precedence to oneself over the Messenger [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] can be more severe than giving precedence to one’s intellect over the revelation he was sent with? Many of the Salaf stated [that this ayah means]: ‘’Do not say anything [about the religion] until the Messenger speaks and do not act until he commands you.’’

The most disobedient person amongst the people and the worst with regards to giving precedence to himself [or herself] over the Messenger is that one who gives precedence to his [or her] intellect or the intellect of another person over the revelation the Messenger was sent with. And when it is the case that Allaah has indeed forbidden them from raising their voices above the voice of the Messenger, then how about raising their intellects above the statements of the Messenger and the revelation he came with?


Al-Waabil as-Sayyib’ page: 21. Abridged & slightly paraphrased