The All-Encompassing Wisdom of Allaah Regarding What He Has Decreed of Punishments

Indeed Allaah (The Most High) is All-Wise and All-Knowing regarding what He has decreed and what He causes to occur from what He has decreed; just as He is All-knowing with regards to what He legislated and commanded. He created what He willed of the [Universal Signs and Events] and He decreed various types of punishments in order to make His slaves fear (destruction) and as a reminder of what is obligated on them regarding the fulfilment of His Rights; as a warning against associating partners with Him; (a warning against being in) opposition to His commandments and (a warning against) committing what He has prohibited by way of opposing the Sunnah [of the Messenger (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam)] and the guidance of those who were foremost to embrace Islaam (i.e. the Salaf). Allaah (Glorified and Exalted Be He) said: [وَمَا نُرۡسِلُ بِٱلۡأَيَـٰتِ إِلَّا تَخۡوِيفً۬ا] ”And We sent not the signs except to warn, and to make them afraid (of destruction).” [17:59]

Allaah (The Most High) said: [سَنُرِيهِمۡ ءَايَـٰتِنَا فِى ٱلۡأَفَاقِ وَفِىٓ أَنفُسِہِمۡ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَهُمۡ أَنَّهُ ٱلۡحَقُّ‌ۗ أَوَلَمۡ يَكۡفِ بِرَبِّكَ أَنَّهُ ۥ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ شَہِيدٌ ] ”We will show them Our Signs in the universe, and in their ownselves, until it becomes manifest to them that this (the Qur’an) is the truth. Is it not sufficient in regard to your Lord that He is a Witness over all things? [41:53]

Allaah (The Most High) said: [قُلۡ هُوَ ٱلۡقَادِرُ عَلَىٰٓ أَن يَبۡعَثَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ عَذَابً۬ا مِّن فَوۡقِكُمۡ أَوۡ مِن تَحۡتِ أَرۡجُلِكُمۡ أَوۡ يَلۡبِسَكُمۡ شِيَعً۬ا وَيُذِيقَ بَعۡضَكُم بَأۡسَ بَعۡضٍ‌ۗ] ”Say: “He has power to send torment on you from above or from under your feet, or to cover you with confusion in party strife, and make you to taste the violence of one another.” [6:65]

Abus Shaikh Al-Asfahaaniy (rahimahullaah) reported from  Mujaahid (rahimahullaah) that he said about this ayah:

[قُلۡ هُوَ ٱلۡقَادِرُ عَلَىٰٓ أَن يَبۡعَثَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ عَذَابً۬ا مِّن فَوۡقِكُمۡ-Say: “He has power to send torment on you from above]; meaning: destructive thunderbolts, stones and winds. [أَوۡ مِن تَحۡتِ أَرۡجُلِكُمۡ- or from under your feet]; meaning: earthquake and to make the earth swallow you.

All the calamities that take place, the trials and other than them by way of which the slaves receive harm and different types of injuries, then all of that is due to Shirk and acts of disobedience. Allaah (The Mighty and Majestic) said:

[وَمَآ أَصَـٰبَڪُم مِّن مُّصِيبَةٍ۬ فَبِمَا كَسَبَتۡ أَيۡدِيكُمۡ وَيَعۡفُواْ عَن كَثِيرٍ۬- ”And whatever of misfortune befalls you, it is because of what your hands have earned. And He pardons much.” [42:30]

 Allaah (The Most High) said: [مَّآ أَصَابَكَ مِنۡ حَسَنَةٍ۬ فَمِنَ ٱللَّهِ‌ۖ وَمَآ أَصَابَكَ مِن سَيِّئَةٍ۬ فَمِن نَّفۡسِكَ‌ۚ –Whatever of good reaches you, is from Allah, but whatever of evil befalls you, is from yourself]. 4:79

And Allaah (The Most High) said about the nations of the past:

[فَكُلاًّ أَخَذۡنَا بِذَنۢبِهِۦ‌ۖ فَمِنۡهُم مَّنۡ أَرۡسَلۡنَا عَلَيۡهِ حَاصِبً۬ا وَمِنۡهُم مَّنۡ أَخَذَتۡهُ ٱلصَّيۡحَةُ وَمِنۡهُم مَّنۡ خَسَفۡنَا بِهِ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ وَمِنۡهُم مَّنۡ أَغۡرَقۡنَا‌ۚ وَمَا ڪَانَ ٱللَّهُ لِيَظۡلِمَهُمۡ وَلَـٰكِن ڪَانُوٓاْ أَنفُسَهُمۡ يَظۡلِمُونَ ]

”So We punished each (of them) for his sins, of them were some on whom We sent Hasiban (a violent wind with shower of stones) [as the people of Lout (Lot)], and of them were some who were overtaken by As-Saihah [torment – awful cry, etc. (as Thamud or Shu’aib’s people)], and of them were some whom We caused the earth to swallow [as Qarun (Korah)], and of them were some whom We drowned [as the people of Nuh (Noah), or Fir’aun (Pharaoh) and his people]. It was not Allah Who wronged them, but they wronged themselves.” [29:40]

[Abridged and slightly paraphrased. Source: عقوبات الله المتنوعة وأسبابُهاpages: 22-24]

To be continued In-Shaa-Allaah